Malaysian Computer Science Centre | Programming
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Data Types

In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data. Most programming languages support various types of data, for example: real, integer or Boolean.


Programming languages typically support a set of operators: constructs which behave generally like functions, but which differ syntactically or semantically from usual functions. Common simple examples include arithmetic (addition with + ), comparison (with > ), and logical operations (such as AND or && ).


An expression in a programming language is a combination of one or more explicit values, constants, variables, operators, and functions that the programming language interprets (according to its particular rules of precedence and of association) and computes to produce (“to return”, in a stateful environment) another value. This process, as for mathematical expressions, is called evaluation.

In simple settings, the resulting value is usually one of various primitive types, such as numerical, string, and logical; in more elaborate settings, it can be an arbitrary complex data type.


In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features of a programming language, which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false. Apart from the case of branch predication, this is always achieved by selectively altering the control flow based on some condition.

In imperative programming languages, the term “conditional statement” is usually used, whereas in functional programming, the terms “conditional expression” or “conditional construct” are preferred, because these terms all have distinct meanings.


A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language). Compilers are a type of translator that support digital devices, primarily computers. The name compiler is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g., assembly language, object code, or machine code) to create an executable program.

Looping & Branching

We can control the flow of a program using branching and looping statements in any language. Branching statements give us code which is optionally executable, depending on the outcome of certain tests or you can say certain cases which we can define. Looping statements are used to repetition of a section of code a number of times or until a condition has been fulfilled.


In computer science, array programming languages (also known as vector or multidimensional languages) generalize operations on scalars to apply transparently to vectors, matrices, and higher-dimensional arrays. Array programming primitives concisely express broad ideas about data manipulation.


In programming, a named section of a program that performs a specific task. In this sense, a function is a type of procedure or routine. Some programming languages make a distinction between a function, which returns a value, and a procedure, which performs some operation but does not return a value.

Oops Using C++

Object oriented programming – As the name suggests uses objects in programming. Object oriented programming aims to implement real world entities like inheritance, hiding, polymorphism etc in programming. The main aim of OOP is to bind together the data and the functions that operates on them so that no other part of code can access this data except that function.
Let us learn about different characteristics of an Object Oriented Programming language:

Object: Objects are basic run-time entities in an object oriented system, objects are instances of a class these are defined user defined data types.